Sexually Transmitted Disease and Infection information

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Chlamydia trachomatis is the UK's most prolific sexually transitted disease
Gonorrhoea is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
Non-specific urethritis (NSU) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases among men
Syphilis is a  sexually transmitted infection on the increase
Syphilis is a  sexually transmitted infection on the increase
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex viruses
Genital warts are soft wart-like growths on the genitals caused by a viral skin disease
If abnormal vaginal discharge can be due to a sexually transmitted disease
HIV means 'human immunodeficiency virus'. It can be acquired through unprotected sex
Pubic lice are parasitic insects often found in the genital area
Scabies is an infestation of the skin with the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei
Molluscum contagiosum is a common, mild viral infection that affects the skin causing small pearly white papules
Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infectious disease characterized by painful ulcers
Thrush is often mistaken as an STD
A list of resources for sexually transmitted diseases and infections
STD is an independant site with information on sexually transmitted dieases

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Hepatitus

HEPATITUS A    view more

HEPATITUS B    view more

HEPATITUS C    view more

WHAT IS HEPATITIS B INFECTION?

It is a condition where the liver is inflamed due to an infection by the Hepatitis B virus. There are many other viruses that can cause hepatitis.
e.g. Hepatitis A, Hepatitis C, EBV, CMV.

HOW IS HEPATITIS B TRANSMITTED?

  • Sexual intercourse with an infected person.
  • Receiving contaminated blood products.
  • Infected mothers can pass it to the child during birth.
  • Needle sharing and needle stick injury.
  • Sharing contaminated equipment.
    e.g. tattooing and acupuncture needles

WHAT IS THE INCUBATION PERIOD OF HEPATITIS B?

  • 3 to 6 months after exposure to the infection

WHAT ARE THE SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HEPATITIS B?

  • It may be without symptoms or may present with severe liver disease.
  • If an individual has acute Hepatitis B, he/she will experience malaise, low grade fever, nausea, loss of appetite, dark tea-coloured urine and jaundice.
    (yellowing of the eyes and skin)
  • Some infected individuals do not show any signs and may remain symptom free and ignorant of the infection until they are tested.

WHAT IS SO DANGEROUS ABOUT HEPATITIS B?

  • Most people get through Hepatitis B infection without complications.
  • 5% to 10% of the population are unable to produce antibodies against the virus and will become chronic carriers.
  • Chronic carriers of Hepatitis B are at higher risk of developing liver cancer.

WHAT ARE HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS AND ANTIBODIES?

  • Hepatitis B antigens are part of the virus particle itself, they can be detected by blood tests.
  • Hepatitis B antibodies are proteins that the body produces when exposed to the virus.
  • Antibodies clear the body of the virus and offer long term protection.

HOW IS HEPATITIS B DIAGNOSED?

Hepatitis B can be diagnosed through blood tests.

  • Hepatitis B antigen tests: the presence of Hepatitis B antigen means that the person is infected and infectious to others.
  • Hepatitis B antibody test: the presence of Hepatitis B antibody means that the person is immune.
  • Liver function tests assess the functional state of the liver.

CAN A HEPATITIS B CARRIER BE CURED?

  • There are new medications that can help some carriers to get rid of their infection. You should seek advice from a specialist for further information.

WHAT SHOULD I DO IF I AM FOUND TO BE A CARRIER?

  • Regular check-ups with your doctor to assess the function of the liver and detect any early cancerous changes.
  • Sexual partners should be screened for infection.
  • Pregnant women must inform their obstetrician so that necessary precautions may be taken to prevent infecting the newborn.
  • Inform your doctor and dentist that you are a carrier so that precautions may be taken during procedures.
  • Do not share personal items like shavers and toothbrushes as there may be blood contamination.
  • Use a condom during sexual intercourse to prevent infecting others.

WHAT SHOULD I DO IF I AM IN DOUBT ABOUT MY STATUS?

  • Have your blood tested for Hepatitis B.
  • Discuss the results with your doctor and vaccinate against Hepatitis B if you have not been infected.
  • Hepatitis B carriers do not need vaccination.


CAN I BE VACCINATED AGAINST HEPATITIS B?

  • Yes, an effective vaccine is available to protect against Hepatitis B.
  • This comprises of a series of three injections.


 

 

 

 

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